Tag Archives: opium

It’s not just about Marijuana, anymore…We are in a war for the right to food and water


 

Above:  Old bottle of Paregoric. Circa 1940s. The large red X on the label indicates that it was classified as an “exempt narcotic”, sold without prescription even though it contains morphine. Until 1970, paregoric could be purchased in the United States at a pharmacy without a medical prescription, in accordance with federal law.  Credit: Wikipedia

 

While you are reading this article, listen to THIS VIDEO OF GATEWOOD GALBRAITH – It may change your life!

 

It’s not just about Marijuana, anymore…

Oddly enough, I never believed that it was.  I was filmed in an interview by a couple in Cincinnati in 2005 who asked me why I was in this ‘movement’.  My reply was that it was because I wanted to know the REAL truth about why Marijuana was illegal because it damn sure wasn’t because someone wanted to sell timber and Newspapers.  “This is just a very small part of a much bigger agenda”, I told her.  I wish I had a copy of that interview!

When the 2014 Farm Bill was passed many businesses started up because of the fact that Hemp was officially allowed to be grown and sold, under specific guidelines of course, but nonetheless grown and sold. 

When I first started out writing about Cannabis prohibition I wasn’t too overly concerned about Agenda 21 and the taking of our rights to farm, have and/or use any kind of plant, I thought they were just after the “narcotics”.  It didn’t take too long to figure out that this just wasn’t the case.  But there were very few people who understood the ramifications of Agenda 21 and it’s far reaching effects out there, and even fewer who wanted to hear about it because everyone was under the impression that the U.N. and our own Government was there to protect us and they “wouldn’t do something like that”.  I was a “conspiracy theorist”.

The public is kept pretty much in the dark about what is happening at the U.N., because there is so many branches, divisions, offices, lack of media news coverage and also just the fact that most people work and have kids and do not have the time to sit down and listen to the news everyday, and then research it out on the internet!  They are just now beginning to see the effects of what I believe was a “test case” when the U.N., effectively made it illegal to consume Cannabis.  A test case for what?  Their ability to be able to control and regulate every plant known to man, especially the ones that can be consumed by us for food and medicine, i.e., Cannabis and Hemp, and to watch what our reaction would be.  How hard was it going to be to regulate us and contain us?  Apparently, it wasn’t too hard.

First, a little background on the U.N. and Agenda 21 because that is where they have Cannabis/Marijuana (and the rest of our food and medicinal plants) wrapped up:

The “League of Nations“, founded in 1920, was the start of what would become the “United Nations” in 1941.  The U.N. is responsible for Agenda 21 (Agenda 2030).  The U.N. is also responsible for the UNODC (U.N. Office of Drug Control), and the DEA is an extension of that, used to enforce drug regulation and drug law in the U.S. 

Roosevelt suggested the name (United Nations) as an alternative to “Associated Powers”

The U.N. was set up as a guise and sold to the people as a way …

…to defend life, liberty, independence and religious freedom, and to preserve human rights and justice in their own lands as well as in other lands.

The United States is a signatory country to Agenda 21, but because Agenda 21 is a legally non-binding statement of intent and not a treaty, the United States Senate did not hold a formal debate or vote on it. It is therefore not considered to be law under Article Six of the United States Constitution. President George H. W. Bush was one of the 178 heads of government who signed the final text of the agreement at the Earth Summit in 1992.

Are we fighting a war that we just cannot win?

March 19, 1991: Plant Breeders’ Rights Extended in Newly Revised UPOV Convention

Revisions to the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants strengthen the intellectual property rights of seed developers. The convention was created in 1961 and is one of several international conventions and treaties that operate under the umbrella of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). The convention’s governing body is the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV). The newly revised UPOV agreement extends the term of plant breeders’ intellectual property protections for new varieties from 15 years to 20 years. It also prohibits farmers from saving seeds, though there is an optional clause that allows member countries to exempt farmers from this restriction under certain conditions. For example, the clause says the restrictions can be waived if member countries implement other mechanisms that provide equivalent protections for the “legitimate interests of the breeder.”

The top 10 seed companies account for $14,785 million – or two-thirds (67%) of the global proprietary seed market.  The world’s largest seed company, Monsanto, accounts for almost one-quarter (23%) of the global proprietary seed market.  The top 3 companies (Monsanto, DuPont, Syngenta) together account for $10,282 million, or 47% of the worldwide proprietary seed market.

Obviously it is  not just about Cannabis, although that is the focus of the drug war because of its illegality causing so many hundreds of thousands or more innocent people to be hurt, imprisoned, even killed and executed over a “treaty” that the U.S. and other signatories used to start the biggest control scheme ever brought down on mainstream humanity, as a whole.  The war over the right to plants.

There is an interesting article about the “top ten” used to be legal drugs on a site called TOPTENZ.  But that is only the beginning of a long list of plants which have been controlled since the beginning of the 20th Century and especially after 1970.  Thank you, President Nixon!  The DEA is the enforcement agency for the UNODC. 

The Drug Enforcement Administration was created by President Richard Nixon through an Executive Order in July 1973 in order to establish a single unified command to combat “an all-out global war on the drug menace.”

RELATED:  “Rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to purposes and principles of the United Nations.”

In 1970 the Controlled Substances Act served as the national implementing legislation for the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs   which was/is an international U.N. treaty  to prohibit production and supply of narcotic drugs and directs that they cannot be sold or used except under certain conditions as set forth by the U.N. for medical treatment .

Through this link CBD’s have officially been placed into Schedule I of the CSA, essentially meaning that as it stands right now, effective January 13, 2017, it is illegal to sell any CBD product as a cosmetic or health care product of any kind.  Final Rule : Establishment of a New Drug Code for Marihuana Extract (December 14, 2016)

There will be a battle over this because the people who have started businesses based on the 2014 Farm Bill were under the impression that they were a legal business.  And as far as I am concerned the DEA, up until this point let them believe that they were. The “Hoban Law Group”, a leading Law Firm in the industry of Cannabis has already promised to debate this in Court.

Hoban surmises, “The feeling is that this is an action beyond the DEA’s authority and we believe this is unlawful and we are taking a course of action for our clients. This Final Rule serves to threaten hundreds, if not thousands, of growing businesses, with massive economic and industry expansion opportunities, all of which conduct lawful business in reliance upon the Federal Government also acting pursuant to law, and as ordered by the Ninth Circuit in 2003 and 2004. We will see the Federal Government in court.”

Meanwhile, the DEA imposes a new rule and the CBD Manufacturers and Sales will have to  fight it out in court while the little people watch and wait and are scared to open the door to police because they have CBD products in the house.  They could be charged with a crime and sent thru Hell in a handbasket.  But this feeds the system too.  Through the police, jails, courts and lawyers and the medical system, which will feed everyone else from the construction people who will build the jails, hospitals and offices though to the sanitation workers who pick up their garbage and other refuse.  The flow of commerce and paper money, the “Law of Commerce”.  In fact, The Harrison Narcotics Tax Act of 1914 was the U.S. attempt to control and regulate narcotics through taxation and the Law of Commerce, in accordance with the 1912 Convention.  The Hague International Opium Convention in 1912 was the beginning to the U.N. control of “drugs” – and plants.

Congress has often used the Commerce Clause to justify exercising legislative power over the activities of states and their citizens

Who is ultimately responsible for the loss of our Human Rights?  Are we not all guilty because it has happened on our own watch, and our parents, and grandparents watch, and we just weren’t paying enough attention?  My Father was an avid watcher of the nightly news, on all two stations.  I was the remote control that he used to switch back and forth between them so that he could catch all of it, because he knew, even in the 1960’s that the media was only telling you what they wanted us to hear.

What could we have done differently?  Our Parents and Grandparents spent most of their lives fighting in WWI and WWII.  By the time they made it home from Iwo Jima they were not able to fight a war against their own government over plants and medicines.  They did not even realize that they needed to!  

What can we do in the future, or FOR the future?  For a start, the power of REPEAL should be utilized, all the way back to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs  in 1961, if not before.  Timothy Leary was successful in getting the 1937 Tax Act on Cannabis Repealed.  However, this did not happen until 1969 and by early 1970’s the CSA was born. 

The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use and distribution of certain substances is regulated. It was passed by the 91st United States Congress as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 and signed into law by President Richard Nixon.[1] The Act also served as the national implementing legislation for the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.  The legislation created five Schedules (classifications), with varying qualifications for a substance to be included in each. Two federal agencies, the Drug Enforcement Administration and the Food and Drug Administration, determine which substances are added to or removed from the various schedules…

During the last decade, opposition to Agenda 21 has increased within the United States at the local, state, and federal levels.[18] The Republican National Committee has adopted a resolution opposing Agenda 21, and the Republican Party platform stated that “We strongly reject the U.N. Agenda 21 as erosive of American sovereignty.”

If things are to change around the world and in the U.S. on a peaceful basis, everyone is going to have to pay attention and get political!  I really do not know how to tell everyone to begin, especially those who work two jobs and still can’t afford a place to live for their families.  At the same time they are slaving to provide, they are going to have to pay attention and get political to change things. (?)  There is only 24 hours in a day, and that is what the U.N. is banking on.  That we just do not have enough time to figure the plan out and do anything about it, because we are all too tired from just trying to survive!  In a video by the late great Attorney Gatewood Galbraith (KY), he said;  “if you don’t get political, it will end up in the streets, and nobody wants to go there”…

The only other choice is just to ignore the “Law” around you and live as you can…until you get caught.  Then you end up property of the “correctional institute” of THEIR choice.

#GodBlessYouALL

Sk

 

 

For thought…

When chocolate was first discovered in the New World, the almighty Roman Catholic Church banned it as an addictive, mind- altering, sexually-stimulating drug. Well, it is. Now it is eaten by billions of people, even nuns and virgins, without people going rabid sexually.

If George Washington and Thomas Jefferson were alive today, they would both be facing a Mandatory Minimum Sentence of 5-40 years in Federal Prison for growing more than 100 Cannabis plants at their homes; Ben Franklin would be in prison simply because he was an opium addict, as would most of our Founding Fathers of America who used opium and hemp, had home alcohol stills, and illegally smuggled rum and moonshine to avoid taxes.

It would not stretch matters to say that the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 (P.L. 59-384, 34 Stat. 768), also known as the Wiley Act, stands as the most consequential regulatory statute in the history of the United States. The act not only gave unprecedented new regulatory powers to the federal government, it also empowered a bureau that evolved into today’s Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The legacy of the 1906 act includes federal regulatory authority over one-quarter of gross domestic product, and includes market gatekeeping power over human and animal drugs, foods and preservatives, medical devices, biologics and vaccines.

 

 

 

#Hastags:

#EndDEA #EndProhibition #ReformUN #EndDeathPenalty  #REPEALtheCSA   #PlantsRights #VeteransRights #ChildrensRights #PrisonersRights #USMJParty

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paregoric 

 

https://usmarijuanaparty.net/history/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_United_Nations

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/League_of_Nations

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agenda_21

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Senate

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Article_Six_of_the_United_States_Constitution

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_H._W._Bush

http://www.toptenz.net/top-10-drugs-that-used-to-be-legal.php

https://www.dea.gov/about/history.shtml

https://kentuckymarijuanaparty.com/2015/10/26/rights-and-freedoms-may-in-no-case-be-exercised-contrary-to-purposes-and-principles-of-the-united-nations-how-the-united-nations-is-stealing-our-unalienable-rights-to-grow/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Controlled_Substances_Act

https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/fed_regs/rules/2016/fr1214.htm

http://m.marketwired.com/press-release/dea-hurts-growing-industry-exceeds-its-authority-regarding-scheduling-controlled-substances-2183399.htm

http://www.votehemp.com/2014_farm_bill_section_7606.html

 https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2016/12/20/899140/0/en/Earth-Science-Tech-Announces-the-Development-of-3-New-Advanced-Formulated-Cannabis-CBD-Nutraceuticals-and-2-Cannabis-CBD-Based-Pharmaceutical-Drugs-under-its-Cannabis-CBD-Patent-IP.html

http://thelawdictionary.org/commerce/

https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/commerce_clause

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leary_v._United_States

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timothy_Leary

http://www.goodmedicinebadbehavior.org/explore/history_of_prescription_drugs.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harrison_Narcotics_Tax_Act

https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/the-1912-hague-international-opium-convention.html

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Iwo_Jima

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5moSy-Ooouk

 

The Law of Unintended Consequences: Illicit for Licit Narcotic Substitution


Image result for heroin plant

Originally written July 15, 2014 at LINK below

Martin R. Huecker, MD and Hugh W. Shoff, MD, MS

 

The dealers will not use it. Heroin dealers have explicit knowledge of the addictive properties of their product. The heroin addict is no longer the desperate character living under a bridge. She is a 17-year-old high school senior who runs out of her grandmother’s oxycodone. He is the stockbroker who weighs the economics of purchasing one oxymorphone on the street for $100 or ten doses of heroin for $200. Because these people are ingesting and injecting products of unknown composition and unfamiliar potency, they can potentially overdose. If lucky, they end up in the emergency department rather than the morgue.

Kentucky ranks third in the nation in drug overdose mortality rate per 100,000 persons, with opioid pills making up the majority.1 In response to these statistics, the State of Kentucky passed House Bill One (HB1) in April 2012, effective October 2012. Also known as “the pill mill bill,” HB1 contains provisions intended to limit opioid prescriptions by pain management physicians and by other acute care providers such as emergency physicians. To prescribe narcotic pain medications, physicians must perform a full history and physical, prescribe only a short course, educate the patient on risks of controlled substances, and obtain a report from a statewide prescription monitoring program (PMP) (Kentucky All Schedule Prescription Electronic Reporting [KASPER]).2

As a result, the number of registered KASPER users in Kentucky has gone from 7500 to 23,000 from December, 2011 to November, 2012. Reports are up from 3300 to 17000 in the same time frame.3 According to the same press release, Kentucky witnessed a decrease of 10.4% total prescriptions in the first six months since HB1 was enacted.3

Mandating PMP reports, as sixteen states currently do, leads to an increase in reports, but so far no statistical difference in opioid overdose mortality.1,4,5,6 In fact, this legislation may not even lower the rate of opioid consumption, rather may shift which opioids are being prescribed.6

Researchers in Ohio looked at the impact of real time PMP information on opioid prescriptions. With PMP data, providers changed prescriptions in 41% of cases; 61% giving fewer opioids but 39% prescribing more opioids.7

House Bill One was intended to and has reduced opioid prescriptions in Kentucky. Forty-four pain clinics in Kentucky closed overnight.8 Preliminary analysis at a large, metropolitan emergency department has shown a decrease in prescriptions for hydrocodone and oxycodone, along with a decrease in ED administration of these medications. This type of “pill mill” legislation has been passed in Louisiana, Florida, Texas and California with varying results.9

Florida had a sharp decrease in opioid prescriptions after similar legislation. Having 90 of the top 100 physicians on the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) 2010 list of top opioid purchasers, Florida saw the number decrease to 13 in 2011, and zero as of April 2013.10 In 2011, Ohio passed a “pill mill bill” to crack down on pain management clinics.11 This legislation led to seizing of 91,000 prescription pills with 38 doctors and 13 pharmacists losing their medical licenses. In the end, 15 medical professionals were convicted on diversion charges.11 With all of this, pill overdose deaths began to decline, but heroin overdoses “skyrocketed.”11

The unintended but foreseeable consequence of such measures has been increase in distribution, abuse, and overdose of heroin. Heroin has gained market share in a similar way in the past. In 2010, Purdue Pharma began manufacturing a reformulated OxyContin after a $600 million fine for misrepresentation.12 Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc. followed in 2011 with an Opana ER reformulation. This resulted in making the pills harder to crush into powder for snorting or injecting.13,14 States such as Florida, Ohio, Minnesota, and Utah have seen patients turn to heroin after crackdown on prescription opioid availability.11,14

The New England Journal of Medicine warned us of what would be a two-fold increase in heroin use after the reformulation of Oxycontin.15 In the 2010 ODLL report, the United States DEA also attempted to warn health care organizations that Oxycontin users might switch to heroin.16,17 The first paper we know of to report this warning was published 3 years later in 2013.16 This paper, a qualitative study of the transition of opioid pill users to heroin users, provides insight into the economic and convenience factors associated with the switch. The researchers interviewed a small sample of heroin users, forty-one in all. All but one of the 19 heroin users aged 20–29 started with pills and progressed to heroin – “termed pill initiates.”16

Numerous popular news reports directly implicate decreased opioid pill availability in the rise of heroin abuse and overdose.16 However, very little discussion of this phenomenon has entered the emergency medicine literature.

The drug cartels have capitalized on the United States opioid appetite and now decreased supply of pills. The route from Mexico to Detroit, then south through Ohio, ends up in northern and central Kentucky. The Kentucky State Police recovered 433 samples of heroin in 2010. In 2012 the number was 1349.13 In Lexington, KY, the eight total heroin arrests in 2011 exploded into 160 in the first 6 months of 2013.18,19 Undercover narcotics officers in Lexington find it easier to buy heroin than marijuana.

Heroin-related overdoses in Kentucky increased from 22 cases in 2011 to 143 cases in 2012, and 170 in the first 9 months of 2013.8,20,21 Kentucky’s percentage of overdose deaths involving heroin went from 3.2 in 2011 to 19.5 in 2012 and up to 26 in 2013.8.21 This phenomenon has occurred in Florida, California, Massachusetts, New York, Oregon, Washington and Ohio.11,2224

The emergency medicine literature has minimal recent discussion of heroin overdose management in the ED; nor have we discussed secondary prevention. Supportive therapy suffices in the ED, with liberal naloxone use and airway protection. State and federal actions to curb heroin deaths can be effective. Good Samaritan laws, present in only one third of states, protect from prosecution those lay individuals attempting to help themselves or companions in overdose situations.

Also present in only one third of states are laws to expand community access to reversal agents such as naloxone. Twenty-two states have laws requiring or recommending education for opioid prescribers. Medicaid expansion to cover substance abuse treatment has occurred thus far in less than half (24) of states.1

As more states enact measures intended to reduce total opioid prescriptions, legislators and healthcare providers alike must be aware of the predictable and devastating rise in heroin sales, abuse, and overdose. Funding for this legislation should include monies allocated toward substance abuse treatment programs and availability of naloxone. Similarly, pill mill bills could universally be coupled with Good Samaritan laws in anticipation of the increase in parenteral opioid overdoses. Funds could be allocated to lay population education via public service announcements. Stricter punishments for drug traffickers could accompany such legislative changes. Many of these measures have been presented as interventions to combat prescription opioid abuse and can now be applied to the subsequent heroin abuse and overdose dilemma.9

At the first line of medical care, emergency physicians must be involved in efforts to minimize collateral damage in this long-term process of curing America’s addiction to opioid drugs and their horrible consequences.

CONTINUE READING…

Pain Medication-Roger Mason


170px-Cannabissativadior

People are generally completely uninformed about pain medications.

Doctors are almost as completely uninformed. Pain medication is a blessing for the TEMPORARY relief of pain, or for people who are dying and suffering. All drugs were legal in America for almost 150 years, until the Harrison Narcotic Act of 1913.

There was not even an age limit!

Heroin, morphine, opium, cocaine, amphetamine, hashish, and marijuana were inexpensive, over the counter drugs. Only about 3% of Americans had a dependence problem.

There was simply no reason whatsoever to pass this act. All drugs should be legal for adults. Period. That’s right- all drugs for all adults. Anyone who commits a crime while under the influence of any drug (including alcohol) should get doubled penalties. People with drug problems are medical patients, not criminals. This would put an end to drug cartels, most organized crime, most gangs, and empty the prisons over-night. Police would be free to arrest real criminals. It would also take all the profit, false allure, and fake glamour out of illegal forbidden drugs. Drug dependence is Boring with a capital B.

If you have a headache, or other minor pains, try an ice pack. If that doesn’t help, try a heating pad. One or the other should help you very much. Only real world experience will tell you whether hot or cold helps relieve your pain. Aspirin is not toxic, if you take one or two , and only occasionally. It is simply the acetyl derivative of salicylic acid from willow bark. If you have regular headaches, or other pains, your body is telling you there is a problem you need to address. Americans swill down too many tons of aspirin to count every year.

Countless millions of clueless Americans also swill down acetominophen like candy. This drug is so toxic, so poisonous, and so so dangerous, it should be outlawed. Warning labels are not enough here. Acetominophen (aka paracetamol) will turn your liver into pudding. This is sold as Tylenol® and Anacin®.  Another dangerous toxin is ibuprofen. This is sold as Advil® and Motrin®. This is also toxic with many side effects. This should also be outlawed due to it’s toxicity.

If you have stronger pain, there are only a few good prescription options, and all are natural opiates or opiate derivatives. Codeine 60 mg is not strong, but is effective for mild pain. It has a “ceiling”, so if you take, say, 200 mg it will not be any more effective. The most you can take is about 60 mg AM, and 60 mg PM. Codeine is sold over the counter in many countries with no problems at all. The fact it is a prescription drug is ridiculous. It was sold over the counter in America in the 1960s with no problem. Never buy codeine with aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or any other filler. Codeine cough syrup is very effective and safe.

Hydrocodone 10 mg is six times stronger than codeine, and much more euphoric. In November 2013 you can finally buy Zohydro® without acetaminophen. Do NOT use Vicodin®, which is full of toxic acetaminophen. Hydrocodone is the most commonly prescribed prescription drug of all, by far in America, but people are ruining their health with the acetaminophen in Vicodin®. Only use Zohydro®.

Oxycodeine 10 mg is also six times stronger than codeine, and just as euphoric as hydro-codeine. You get eurphoria plus energy. This combination makes it potentially addictive for weak minded people. This is the best pain killer known, and most people actually prefer it to morphine. For some reason, this is only sold in a very few countries. This is the best overall pain medication known to man. Believe it or not, this was invented in 1914, and only recently has become so popular. For almost 100 years it just sat on the shelf. Oxycontin® is high dose oxycodeine, up to 160 mg (!) for terminal patients. Per-coset® is full of toxic acetaminophen for no valid scientific reason.

Morphine 30 mg was considered the gold standard for pain relief, but most people prefer oxycodeine, due to the enhanced euphoria and feeling of energy. Morphine is basically only given to people with serious chronic pain, and the terminally ill. Morphine does not work for some people as they lack the enzyme necessary to metabolize it. Morphine is good for people who do not want the extra energy and euphoria, just pain relief. Using it intrarectally is 50% more effective. This does not work with any other pain medicine ex-cept morphine and it’s derivatives.

Hydromorphine 4 mg is known as Dilaudid®, and more than seven times stronger than morphine. It was invented in 1924. This is also only prescribed for very serious cases. There is really no basic difference between morphine and hydromorphine except dosage. 50% more effective when used intrarectally.

What about heroin (diacetyl morphine) 5 mg itself? This is a fine pain killer, and no more addictive than morphine. This is used in Europe but not in the U.S. It makes no sense at all to outlaw heroin as a pain medication. The only problem is that it cannot be taken orally, and that does make it impractical. Never inject any drug unless you are in the emergency room of a hospital. Oral opiates are far preferred. Heroin has been demonized for no reason at all.  The fact it must be injected makes it very impractical however.

Oxymorphine aka oxymorphone 5 mg (Opana®) is similar to hydromorphine, but for some reason is rarely used in the U.S. This has also been available for almost 100 years. This is a shame, as it is very strong and very effective. This just proves the ignorance of medical doctors to ignore a safe and effective drug like this. This is very underutilized. 50% more effective when used intrarectally.

Opium tincture is known as Paregoric®, but it very diluted and weak. Opium powder is not used in America for pain, and concentrated opium (Pantopon®) is almost never used. There are too many harmful alkaloids in unconcentrated opium to use safely. You do not want to take these alkaloids. Paregoric is sold over the counter in some countries. It was legal in America until the 1960s.

What about the synthetic non-opiate drugs like Tramadol®, Demerol®, fentanyl, methadone, ketamine, and propoxyphene? Don’t use these, since you have more effective, less toxic opiates to use. Tramadol® is weak and toxic. Demerol® is very effective, but more toxic than real opiates. Fentanyl is best used as an anesthetic for surgery. Patches are available. The Russians use it as a military aerosol to incapacitate crowds. (The problem is many people die when it is used that way.)   Methadone is illegal in the U.S. and very toxic. Ketamine is a deleriant anesthetic drug with psychedelic properties. The ketamine patches do not cause disorientation. Propoxyphene (Darvon®) is toxic and simply should not be used.   

This leaves codeine, hydrocodeine, and oxycodeine for most people. Serious pain can require morphine or hydromorphine, since oxymorphine is rarely used. This is a short but effective list. Do not let the doctor, in his ignorance, dictate your pain management. Demand real opiates with no fillers.

For pet lovers, the same is true for our beloved companions. Codeine is weak and rather ineffective. This leaves hydrocodeine, oxycodeine, morphine, and dilaudid as the only real choices. Veterinarians are stupid beyond belief, and will give your beloved pet inef-fective Tramadol® and other such drugs. Demand proper pain medication if your pet needs it, and find a new vet if he won’t do it. Some pets cannot metabolize morphine.

The drugs laws have turned America, and most of the whole world, into police states. America has 5% of the world population, but 25% of the world prison inmates!!! One third of American prisoners are locked up for drugs. The drug laws make pharmacists, doctors, and pharmaceutical companies rich. Opiates would literally cost no more than candy bars if legalized. Again, pain medication is for the TEMPORARY relief of suffering, unless you  have an incurable chronic condition, or are terminal. You need to be educated about pain relief because your doctor certainly isn’t.  

CONTINUE READING…

The Golden Triangle was recently replaced as the world’s dominant opium producer by a new regional power known as the Golden Crescent,


title=

Asia’s opium hubs

The opiates that addicts swallow, snort and inject often begin their journey to India from the Golden Triangle and the Golden Crescent. The former is Southeast Asia’s primary hub for opium cultivation. Located along the Mekong river, where the borders of Myanmar, Laos and Thailand converge, the illicit trade thrives — exceeding $16.3 billion per year, according to a 2014 UN report. Though eradication efforts in the late ’90s and early 2000s caused the area’s opium cultivation to decline, it began surging again in 2006, partly because improvements in transportation made it easier to move the drug from place to place.

The Golden Triangle is currently the world’s second-largest opium producer. A 2014 report by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime estimated the region’s opiate poppy cultivation rose to 63,800 hectares last year, compared with 61,200 hectares in 2013, nearly triple the amount harvested in 2006. Myanmar is the region’s leading opium cultivator.

Poverty and a lack of economic opportunity fuel illicit opium farming throughout the Golden Triangle, say researchers. In one survey in Burma, village farmers said they cultivated opium poppy just to provide for basic essentials such as food, education and housing. Researchers say economic development in these areas may be the best way to prevent opium growing.

The Golden Triangle was recently replaced as the world’s dominant opium producer by a new regional power known as the Golden Crescent, an area comprising Afghanistan and Pakistan. Afghanistan is the world’s largest opium producer and Pakistan primarily serves as an illicit drug trafficking route.

A 2014 World Drug Report said war-torn Afghanistan accounted for 90 per cent of global opium production. In 2013, the country cultivated an estimated 5,500 tons of oven-dried opium, which translates into roughly four per cent of the country’s Gross Domestic Product. Further, the already substantial opium cultivation area is growing. According to the report, the farming area increased by 36 per cent from 154,000 hectares in 2012 to 209,000 hectares in 2013. This uptick in Afghanistan’s opium cultivation continues despite the fact that the USA has invested more than seven billion dollars to combat the issue. A 2014 report from the US Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction described how the country’s opium cultivation was at an all-time high, despite more than a decade of US-led counter-narcotics efforts.

Afghanistan’s illicit opium production and trafficking is a multibillion-dollar industry where the Taliban-funded terrorist organisations reap the most profit. The UN Office on Drugs and Crime estimates that in 2009 the Afghan Taliban earned around $155 million from the illicit opium trade, while Afghan drug traffickers acquired $2.2 billion — a grim reminder of how drugs fuel crime and terrorism as well as addiction.

Read more at http://www.thestatesman.com/news/supplements/asia-s-opium-hubs/67888.html#vzM0UJoVOcxbDmA7.99

Afghanistan: Democracy with the flavor of narcotics


Submitted by TwoCircles.net on 24 May 2015 – 9:32pm

By Dr Mohammad Nazrul Bari and Milad Alimoradian,

Afghanistan has been the core of exhaustive research and analysis. This great landlocked country with an excellent ancient history has seen lots of difficult and different situations, especially in the last century; it suffered massively from several external and internal issues such as political, sociological, religious, etc. However, by looking at the internal issues we see that it’s linked to external interventions, which are not proliferating and productive for the country. This simply means that the external elements created the major devastating issues in the country: exploitation in all various forms can be seen as one of the main issues.

Due to the unique tangible and intangible sources of Afghanistan, the political merchants always had their eyes on this land and tried their best to exploit its society by all means. However, one of the greatest essential elements that has been missed in the political system and culture of this country is democracy.

There is no doubt that democracy is an essential element for the present society and contemporary world-order. Without democracy the system will lead to a closed dark era in which a number of civil rights will be sacrificed by the ruling power, and the social and public welfares will be replaced by personal agendas and motives. However, the question is how should democracy be implemented in a political system that was far away from it? How should it adjust with traditions, customs and norms of the society? Does the use of force make it a liberal country without giving birth to any other internal issue? Or should it be achieved, step by step, through a social process? An analysis of all these concerns needs more space and research. Considering its limitations, this article focuses on the trade of narcotics in the hurdles in the way of democracy in Afghanistan before and after the invasion by the US forces.

Resilient Afghans come out in large number despite Taliban threats

A man being frisked by security force outside a polling booth in Kabul on April 5, 2014 Presidential Election. Courtesy: Aaquib Khan

The 9/11 was a land mark in the history of the United States of America. In fact, it initiated a new era in the world history. Since that time the doctrine of Bush (former US President) became the agenda of foreign policy of USA all over the world. According to this policy, the United State has a right to defend itself against countries that harbour or give aid to the terrorist groups.

The first target of the US became Afghanistan because it was under Taliban rule and, more significantly, al-Qaida had sufficient backup from them. Statistically, at the time of attack, the al-Qaida had only 200 active and trained jihadists. Thanks to CIA, now most of the Islamic terrorists groups are named al-Qaida or associated to al-Qaida. This scenario has three reasons: first, the one way journalism policy of the west in which the news corporation follows only one dimensional lead; second, the socio-cultural thinking of western individuals; and the last, the framing and marketing of foreign policy of western politics that became a strategy in the political structure of policy making of the West.

For example, what the world faced during the Cold War before 1991 is a structure of ideologies and world-views of the Communists threatening the West. As a result, it became the main enemy of the West, but, later on, it was replaced by the menace of Islamic fundamentalism.

However, when the Taliban gets defeated within few days, the call for democracy becomes the agenda for development of Afghanistan as US did in the past and doing it in the West Asia. After the elapse of 14 years, still the concept of democracy is grappling with complex and inhumane issues for the civil-rights of the citizens of the country.

The recent Presidential election in Afghanistan took too much time, and in second ballot, Abdullah didn’t accept the result of election and declared the election a coup. Finally, both opponents came together for a resolution that resulted as a new form of practical bureaucratic system in which Abdullah will act as a semi kind of Prime Minister known as Chief Executive Officer. From another point-of-view, it took a long time for the president,Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai to introduce his cabinet to the Parliament. All these facts show the internal difficulties for the new government in the way of democracy.

Narcotics are one of the beneficial businesses all over the world. Opium as the mother of drugs and ancient types of narcotics has been introduced by the invasion of Alexander to minor Asia. For the first time, it was cultivated in Mesopotamia and later on brought to Egypt and from Egypt to Cyprus and from there came to Asia Minor by Alexander. Now in present day, Afghanistan is the major producer of opium not only in minor Asia but all over the world.

Taliban banned the cultivation of opium but the post-Taliban era gave a new opportunity to the people of this region to cultivate injurious drugs. Fortunately or unfortunately, under the internal chaos of the country, they would be able to produce more and more. One of the reasons for cultivation of opium is that it doesn’t need much water or care. It’s easy to cultivate and always has good market. According to the UN report of 2012, Afghanistan, the biggest producer, produced 74% of the total opium of the world. According to Din Mohammad Mobarez Rashidi, Minister of Counter Narcotics, drug mafia’s benefit is USD 80 billion each year, of which only USD 1 billion goes to the farmers. The so called Prophet of democracy, the United States spends USD 7.5 billion against narcotics in Afghanistan.

According to Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR), cultivated fields of Opium poppy (Papaver Somniferum) cultivation takes up 2,09,000 hectares (516,230 acres) of land in Afghanistan, a 36% increase since 2012. About 1.3 million Afghan adults were regular drug users in 2012, which is 1 million additional to the data of 2009; the regular opium users grew to 2,30,000 in 2009 from the 1,30,000 in 2005. Another fact is the population of Afghanistan is just under 32 million. Helmand and Kandahar provinces are major producers of opium in Afghanistan. In other words, Afghanistan produces 75% of the world’s opium. According to the inspector, the reason of this massive growth in production is due to the withdrawal plan of American forces from the region. In consequence, the drug lords have safe and secure lands for their business.

However, it has another face, and the statement of the inspector has been criticized by others.

According to Le Monde magazine, there is indirect cooperation between the American forces and these drug mafias in recent years. Further Le Monde writes that drug mafia and US army are using the Taliban forces for the protection of their business lines.

The majority of American forces have left the country by the end of 2014, and this act shows the reluctant motivation of Americans in countering narcotics way. The continuous growth of narcotics shows that the Americans are not able to control these phenomena despite expending billions of dollars. Drug mafia produced 5,500 tons opium in 2013 but only 41,000 of this scale has been captured by the anti-narcotics forces.

The prevailing corruptions and loss of the sensibility of righteousness at the high level have brought down the country into a deep-state. The National Officials have closed their eyes on the activity of drug lords by receiving bribes from them. They don’t share their intelligence with counter narcotics forces and therefore it slows the process. On the other hand, there are reluctant feelings between Americans and local forces for collaboration in this regards. The scenario gets worse when most of the drug mafias are officials in the government of Afghanistan. Therefore, even Americans turn away, because first of all they supported Hamid Karzai government and now the present one. Moreover, it’s not directly related to anti-terrorism agenda. According to Thomas Schweich, the Ex U S State Department Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, almost all political parties’ hands are dirty in this trade. The benefit of this trade created a situation in which both the government and the Taliban are involved, and reluctance of the government in counter narcotics actions is a proof for this involvement.

For example, on October 28, 2010 agents of Russia’s Federal Service for the Control of Narcotics joined Afghans and Americans anti-drug forces in an operation to destroy a major drug production site near Jalalabad. In the operation 932 kilograms of high quality heroin and 156 kilograms of opium, with a street value of US$ 250 million, and a large amount of technical equipment were seized. This was the first anti-drug operation to include Russian agents. According to Viktor Ivanov, Director of Russia’s Federal Service for the Control of Narcotics, this marks an advance in relations between Moscow and Washington. Conversely, the statement of Afghan President Hamid Karzai shows another tendency. He called the operation a violation of Afghan sovereignty and international law.

The West and its allies should be more honest in their efforts to make Afghanistan as war free zone in south Asia without getting involved in the profit of opium trade. True democracy can only be established when the people of Afghanistan start thinking above the selfish and self-centric approach.

Dr Mohammad Nazrul Bari is associated with Department of History, School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Central University of Karnataka, Kalaburagi, India (He can be reached at: albari31@rediffmail.com)

Milad Alimoradian is an expert in international relation and national security, Iran (He can be reached at: milad.alimoradian@gmail.com)

CONTINUE READING…

A Way to Brew Morphine Raises Concerns Over Regulation


By DONALD G. McNEIL Jr.MAY 18, 2015

All over the world, the heavy heads of opium poppies are nodding gracefully in the wind — long stalks dressed in orange or white petals topped by a fright wig of stamens. They fill millions of acres in Afghanistan, Myanmar, Laos and elsewhere. Their payload — the milky opium juice carefully scraped off the seed pods — yields morphine, an excellent painkiller easily refined into heroin.

But very soon, perhaps within a year, the poppy will no longer be the only way to produce heroin’s raw ingredient. It will be possible for drug companies, or drug traffickers, to brew it in yeast genetically modified to turn sugar into morphine.

Almost all the essential steps had been worked out in the last seven years; a final missing one was published Monday in the journal Nature Chemical Biology.

“All the elements are in place, but the whole pathway needs to be integrated before a one-pot glucose-to-morphine stream is ready to roll,” said Kenneth A. Oye, a professor of engineering and political science at M.I.T.

Yeast cells on this Petri dish are producing the pigment betaxanthin, which researchers used to identify key enzymes in the production of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, the metabolites in the poppy plant that could lead to morphine, antibiotics and other pharmaceutical agents. Credit William DeLoache/UC Berkeley

This rapid progress in synthetic biology has set off a debate about how — and whether — to regulate it. Dr. Oye and other experts said this week in a commentary in the journal Nature that drug-regulatory authorities were ill prepared to control a process that would benefit the heroin trade much more than the prescription painkiller industry. The world should take steps to head that off, they argue, by locking up the bioengineered yeast strains and restricting access to the DNA that would let drug cartels reproduce them.

Other biotech experts counter that raising the specter of fermenting heroin like beer, jokingly known among insiders as “Brewing Bad,” is alarmist and that Dr. Oye’s proposed solutions are overkill. Although making small amounts of morphine will soon be feasible, they say, the yeasts are so fragile and the fermentation process so delicate that it is not close to producing salable quantities of heroin. Restricting DNA stifles all research, they argue, and is destined to fail just as restrictions on precursor chemicals have failed to curb America’s crystal meth epidemic.

A spokesman for the Drug Enforcement Administration said his agency “does not perceive an imminent threat” because no modified yeast strain is commonly available yet. If that happens, he said, D.E.A. laboratories would be able to identify heroin made from it.

An F.B.I. agent who has been following the yeast strains since 2009 said he was glad that the debate was beginning before the technology was ready and before lawmakers moved to restrict it.

“We’ve learned that the top-down approach doesn’t work,” said Supervisory Special Agent Edward You, who said he coined the “Brewing Bad” term and had held workshops for biotech students and companies. “We want the people in the field to be the sentinels, to recognize when someone is trying to abuse or exploit their work and call the F.B.I.”

No scientific team has yet admitted having one strain capable of the entire sugar-to-morphine pathway, but several are trying, and the Stanford lab of Christina D. Smolke is a leader. She said she expected one to be published by next year.

No one in the field thought there should be no regulation, she said, but suggestions that home brewers would soon make heroin were “inflammatory” because fermenting manipulated yeasts “is a really special skill.” Implications of research like hers should be calmly discussed by experts, she said, and Dr. Oye’s commentary “was getting people to react in a very freaked-out way.”

Robert H. Carlson, the author of “Biology Is Technology,” said restrictions were doomed to fail just as Prohibition failed to stop the home brewing of alcohol.

“DNA synthesis is already a democratic, low-cost technology,” he said. “If you restrict access, you create a black market.”

What is considered one of the last important missing steps, a way to efficiently grow a morphine precursor, (S)-reticuline, in brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was published in Nature Chemical Biology on Monday by scientists from the University of California, Berkeley, and Canada’s Concordia University.

Photo

Kenneth A. Oye, a professor of engineering and political science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said that drug-regulatory authorities are ill-prepared to control a process that can create heroin’s raw ingredient. Credit Stuart Darsch

The leader of the Berkeley team, John E. Dueber, said it was not trying to make morphine but 2,500 other alkaloids for which reticuline is a precursor, some of which might become antibiotics or cancer drugs.

Nonetheless, he said, since he realized his research has implications for the making of morphine, he sent his draft paper to Dr. Oye, suggesting the debate become more public.

One crucial question is whether the technology is of more use to the pharmaceutical industry or drug cartels. Dr. Oye argues it is the latter.

Companies are always seeking painkillers that create less addictive euphorias or do not paralyze breathing muscles, and having a predictable process they could tweak would be useful, but they already have a cheap, steady supply of opium from India, Turkey and Australia, where poppies are grown legally by licensed farmers.

That chain will be hard to disrupt. Since the 1960s, when it was created to convince Turkey to crack down on heroin, the International Narcotics Control Board has set quotas. Thousands of small farmers, their bankers and equipment suppliers depend on the sales, and they have local political clout just as American corn farmers do.

Also, pharmaceutical companies can already synthesize opiates in their labs. Fentanyl, a painkiller 100 times as powerful as morphine, is synthetic, as is loperamide (Imodium), an antidiarrheal opiate.

Heroin sellers, by contrast, must smuggle raw materials out of lawless Afghanistan, Laos, Myanmar and Mexico. Their supply lines are disrupted when any local power — from the Taliban to the United States Army — cracks down. Brewing near their customers would save them many costs: farmers, guards, guns, planes, bribes and so on.

One frightening prospect Dr. Oye raised was how viciously drug cartels might react if Americans with bioengineering know-how started competing with them. Gunmen from Mexican drug gangs have taken control of many secret marijuana fields in American forests.

His commentary suggested several possible steps to prevent misuse of the technology. The yeasts could be locked in secure laboratories, worked on by screened employees. Sharing them with other scientists without government permission could be outlawed.

Their DNA could be put on a watch list, as sequences for anthrax and smallpox are, so any attempt to buy them from DNA supply houses would raise flags. Chemically silent DNA “watermarks” could be inserted so stolen yeasts could be traced. Or the strains could be made “wimpier and harder to grow,” Dr. Oye said, perhaps by making them require nutrients that were kept secret.

Agent You said he did not want to comment on Dr. Oye’s suggestions, but was glad a threat had been identified by scientists before it was a reality, adding, “If this occurred across the board, it would make the F.B.I.’s life a heck of a lot easier.”

A version of this article appears in print on May 19, 2015, on page D1 of the New York edition with the headline: Makings of a New Heroin. Order Reprints| Today’s Paper|Subscribe

CONTINUE READING…

Despite costly U.S. effort, Afghan poppy cultivation hits new high


By Reuters

Published: 23:01 EST, 20 October 2014 | Updated: 23:01 EST, 20 October 2014

Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

By David Alexander

WASHINGTON, Oct 21 (Reuters) – Opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan hit an all-time high in 2013 despite years of counter-narcotics efforts that have cost the United States $7.6 billion, the U.S. government watchdog for Afghanistan reconstruction spending said on Tuesday.

The U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime reported that Afghan farmers grew an "unprecedented" 209,000 hectares (516,000 acres) of opium poppy in 2013, surpassing the previous high of 193,000 hectares (477,000 acres) in 2007, said John Sopko, the special inspector general for Afghanistan reconstruction.

"In past years, surges in opium poppy cultivation have been met by a coordinated response from the U.S. government and coalition partners, which has led to a temporary decline in levels of opium production," Sopko said in a letter to Secretary of State John Kerry, Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel and other top U.S. officials.

"The recent record-high level of poppy cultivation calls into question the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of those prior efforts," he said.

Afghanistan produces more than 80 percent of the world’s illicit opium, and profits from the illegal trade help fund the Taliban insurgency. U.S. government officials blame poppy production for fueling corruption and instability, undermining good government and subverting the legal economy.

The United States has spent $7.6 billion on counter-narcotics efforts in Afghanistan since launching the programs following the start of the 2001 war, it said.

Sopko said the U.N. drug office estimated the value of poppy cultivation and opium products produced in Afghanistan in 2013 at about $3 billion, a 50 percent increase over the $2 billion estimated in 2012.

"With deteriorating security in many parts of Afghanistan and low levels of eradication of poppy fields, further increases in cultivation are likely in 2014," Sopko said in the letter.

He said affordable deep-well technology brought to Afghanistan over the past decade had enabled Afghans to turn 200,000 hectares (494,000 acres) of desert in southwestern Afghanistan into arable land, much of it devoted to poppy production.

The U.S. Embassy in Kabul, in a letter responding to the findings, said the rise in poppy cultivation and decline in eradication efforts by provincial authorities was "disappointing news." It said U.S. officials were helping Afghans develop the ability to lead and manage a long-term counter-narcotics effort.

The embassy said the fight against poppy cultivation had had an impact on growers, resulting in a change in where the crop is planted.

"Essentially, poppy cultivation has shifted from areas where government presence is broadly supported and security has improved, toward more remote and isolated areas where governance is weak and security is inadequate," it said.

Michael Lumpkin, the assistant secretary of defense for special operations and low-intensity conflict, said in a response letter that the Pentagon had supported counter-narcotics operations by other U.S. government agencies but was not responsible for managing poppy eradication programs.

"In our opinion, the failure to reduce poppy cultivation and increase eradication is due to the lack of Afghan government support for the effort," Lumpkin said. (Reporting by David Alexander; Editing by Cynthia Osterman)

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/reuters/article-2801111/Despite-costly-U-S-effort-Afghan-poppy-cultivation-hits-new-high.html#ixzz3Gp3QqGkw
Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook